Give a man a beer, waste an hour. Teach a man to brew, and waste a lifetime
A few weeks ago, I had the chance to learn a new skill relating to self reliance. My cousin has taken up the new hobby of home brewing beer, and asked me to give him a hand with a batch. Brewing is something I’ve read extensively about, but never actually tried before. Knowing how something is done is not the same as knowing how to actually do it. I wanted to share a little bit about the process I learned, but this won’t be a step by step article. My cousin will be doing a guest post soon to go into more detail.
He is still a novice, but he is advancing very quickly in his abilities. There are a few ways to brew at home ranging from very simple to extremely complex. For this project, we took on a more advanced method. A lot of beginners use malt extract brewing. This means the grains have already been mashed and canned. For this, you add water to the contents of the can and go from there. There isn’t much that can go wrong, because the hard part has been done already. You don’t have to closely monitor temperatures and mash times.
A step up in complexity is mashing the grain. For this method, you take raw malted barley and hold it at a certain temperature for a specific amount of time. This step converts the starches in the grain into a sugar that the yeast can ferment. Yeasts are very picky about their food sources, and starches are pretty much useless to them. They must feed on sugar to produce alcohol. If mash temperatures are too cool, it takes too long to convert to sugar. If the temperature gets too high, you will destroy the enzymes that do the conversion.
Once the grain mash was done and the starches were converted, we moved to the hops. Hops are the flower of a vine that has been used for centuries in beer brewing. They add the bitterness that offsets the sweet flavor of the malt, and act a preservative and stabilizer. Once the mash was complete, we brought the liquid (called Wort) to a boil and started adding specific amounts of hops at specific intervals. This step took about an hour.
At this point we had a wort that needed some yeast. Aside from being picky about their food sources, yeast are temperature sensitive. If you pitch the yeast into wort that has just come off a boil, they will all die. So here we are with a 5 gallon bucket of steaming liquid and a yeast that likes room temperature. Let the waiting begin!
We helped the cooling process along by filling the sink with ice water and setting the bucket down in it. This method isn’t exactly efficient, but since we didn’t have the proper cooling equipment, we had to handle it this way. Once the waiting game was over we were able to pitch the yeast and start the real beer making process.
The beer we brewed is a classic German Lager recipe. This type of beer requires a fermentation temperature in the 40s. This really slows the fermentation down, but provides a very crisp flavor when it is done. Most beer styles ferment for a few days at room temperature, but the Lager has been going for 3 weeks and will require at least 2 more in the cold. If you ever brew Lagers you will need a separate refrigerator unless you are willing to sacrifice most of your fridge space for a couple of months.
This article is very simple and only covers the concepts of brewing. I’ll be posting a detailed step by step authored by the actual brewer very soon. In the meantime, check out his new blog! He covers his success and failure at learning to brew. You can leave comments there to ask questions, offer advice, or share experiences.
Here at the homestead, saving money is always on our minds. One of our biggest expenses (as most can relate) is energy cost. Summer is hard because the house isn’t well insulated and Texas summers are brutal. The best we can do there is set the thermostat up a little and deal with the fact that it is going to be warmer than we like in the house. Any unusually cooler days in Summer will see windows open and the air conditioner taking a break. Those days are few and far between in Texas. We just suck it up and budget for high electric bills from June through September.
Winter is a different story in Texas. We can get cold here, but nothing like the folks up north. A really cold night will be in the upper teens, and single digit temperatures will set records. We just came out of an unusually cold Winter, and my electric bill reflected that. I posted an electric bill in December that rivaled the highest Summer bills. Time to get serious on reducing that bill!
We have a fireplace in the house, and using it reduced the amount of time the electric furnace runs. It’s a no-brainer… Use the fireplace more when it’s cold outside! The only catch is a fireplace needs a steady supply of firewood. That means tooling up with the proper equipment to feed the wood stack. I have a McCulloch gas chainsaw already, but as it ages it is getting moody. It’s hesitant to start sometimes and can be a pain to keep running at times. I need a new gas saw, but this one will have to limp along until I can afford something better.
Here’s where the Electric Chainsaw comes in. I was shopping around at Harbor Freight and saw a Chicago Electric 14 inch electric chainsaw on sale for 50 dollars. I checked the online reviews on my phone and all seemed good. I went ahead and picked one up with the idea that I could use it close to the house for small chores. It came with a bottle of bar oil, and once filled it was ready to use.
I started out with some small jobs to test it out. A few low limbs here, some saplings there. It never missed a beat and did everything I wanted with little effort. After I was satisfied with the performance, I moved on to a larger diameter tree that needed to come down. The little chainsaw ripped through an elm tree with a trunk diameter of 10 inches or so. It was slower than a gas saw, but it got the job down well.
A few weeks ago, I got started on the wood pile for next Winter. I had already selected two Locust trees that needed thinned out close to the house. I fired up the gas saw and got one felled. Halfway through trimming the limbs off, my saw started acting up. It would run for a minute then die. After restarting it a couple of times with the same result, I set it down and walked away for a bit. I debated on taking it apart to troubleshoot, but I had a tree down in the yard and partially in the driveway. No time for saw repair!!
I strung out an extension cord and grabbed the electric saw. Within an hour, I had the tree limbed and cut into firewood length pieces. I was still feeling productive so I didn’t want to interrupt the workflow. I drug the extension cord and saw out to the next tree and felled it as well. Another hour and it was done. My gas saw would have done it a little bit faster, but I didn’t want to waste a good working day trying to get it running again.
The wood is stacked and seasoning so I can split it later once it dries out. All in all, these two trees provided about a rick of wood. All of the cuts save the first felling cut were done with the 50 dollar electric saw. I’d say this little saw passed its first real test with flying colors.
The downside to an electric chainsaw is that it obviously requires an electrical outlet. It is limited by the length of the extension cord and the location of the nearest outlet. I was lucky that both of these trees were within 100 feet of an outlet. You won’t taking it very far into the woods unless you are willing to drag a generator along or have a 1200 Watt or larger inverter on a vehicle.
Overall, I can’t recommend this thing enough for small jobs or as a backup to a gas chainsaw. There is no fueling, pulling a rope, or warmup times to mess with. It also weighs half as much as my gas saw, so I can use it longer without fatigue.
While perusing the seed display at a local store, Sarah found a variety of green bean neither of us had heard of. Asparagus Bean, AKA the Yard Long bean. This bean is supposed to put on pods up to 30 inches long. I’ve always planted bush varieties, so climbers are a new deal for me. Sarah hit Pinterest on ideas for a trellis and came upon the idea of a bean teepee. Something else that’s a new idea. Lets give it a try!
I selected two skinny little locust trees about 2 inches at the base and felled them. This was a lot easier task than their full grown brothers. As it turns out, the little ones don’t have thorns up and down the trunks. A few minutes with the chainsaw to clean them up and they were cut to length at 8 feet.
I had a spot by the tomatoes that was already tilled and mulched, so I planted each of these poles in a hole a few inches deep and stood them together. With a little help, I tied them up with baling wire. As it turns out, I probably wouldn’t have made it as a member of a plains tribe. My teepee doesn’t have that majestic look that we see in paintings of teepees in picturesque valleys. Oh well, as long as the wind doesn’t blow it over and the beans are willing to grow on it, I’ll call it a success. Once the beans come up and start climbing, I plan to run twine horizontally between the poles.
Hopefully this little contraption will be covered in delicious green beans in a couple of months. I’ll keep everyone updated on the progress and whether or not the teepee concept works out.
Here at the homestead, I currently serve as Director of Homestead Security. It can be a busy job at times. Random cars driving down the private road, coyotes getting too close, rabbits exploring the garden, feral cats tearing stuff up. We have a lot of security breaches around here and it can be tiring keeping up with all of it. To make things worse, I work full time, so I’m not home to deal with these breaches during the day.
We have Maddie the shepherd dog. She’s a sweetheart and my best friend, but security she isn’t. An intruder would get loved and cuddled to death. We also have Tito, the blind wonder. He barks a lot, but an intruder could walk by him. I can’t hold him at fault because he can’t see. With their powers combined, we have unseen intruders getting loved and cuddles. This works out to a completely unacceptable security situation.
We have friends that run goats, and I just swoon over their herd dogs. These dogs are big and intimidating, but lovable to their humans. They literally fight coyotes to the death. Nothing on the ranch escapes their watchful gaze. When one of them turned up pregnant, I got a little excited. I asked our friends if they had plans for the pups, they basically said they needed to find them new homes when they were delivered and weaned. We were all expecting these fluffy white Great Pyrenees puppies. We thought they would be a legacy to their father, Chuck. Chuck was a beast that gave his life fighting off a pack of coyotes. A braver, more noble herd dog has ever lived. He will be missed by all that knew him.
As it turns out, the Momma Pyrenees was not knocked up by the noble Chuck. Bruce the fetching, crazy Boston Terrier/Boxer mix was the culprit. So now we have a puppy that has droopy jowls, floppy ears, and a Great Pyrenees double coat. And it she grows into those giant feet, we’re going to have a beast!
Momma kicked her and 7 other litter mates off the teat early, so we got a 5 week old puppy. We haven’t slept in a week. The puppy has actually made Sarah’s face bleed two nights in a row. She has teeth. And she loves using them!
Meet Maevis, the new Director of Homestead Security. Of course, she’s too young to take full responsibility but we are grooming her for the job daily.
Here at the homestead, we are situated right where the prairie meets a creek bottom. Wildlife is abundant and the scenery is very pretty. It also means we have some great soil for growing. One of the downsides, however, is that we don’t have many of the typical “firewood” trees around. Most of us in the south instantly think of Oak as the firewood of choice. It burns slow and hot, and one tree usually contains enough wood for a winter of fireplace use. Folks in other parts of the country have their own first choices for firewood. I don’t have any of the “favorites” on my place at all. I’m not even sure where they nearest Oak tree is.
One tree species I have an abundance of is very wicked and hateful Honey Locust. How can a tree be so wicked and hateful? It all has to do with natural defenses. This species has thorns. Big, ugly thorns that will pierce right through the sole of work boots and car tires. It cares not for your denim and cotton duck clothing or leather gloves. The goal of this tree is to make you bleed, and it achieves the goal frequently. Most thorny trees have thorns on the branches. The Honey Locust has them too, but it also grows thorns up and down the trunk. Vicious, multi-pronged thorns that can grow to 8 inches in length.
Most sane people would ask the question, “Why would you mess with a hateful tree like that?” The answer is simple. The wood is very hard, straight growing, and the trees have very few branches. It really makes for some beautiful firewood. Because of the lack of branches and the straight grain, this wood is probably the best splitting wood I’ve worked with. It burns slow and hot, which really helps heat the house on frigid nights.
So how do I deal with getting this tree from a thorny mess to the woodpile? I’ve developed a couple of different approaches.
The first approach is the easiest. The second takes a little more time, but will save you some bleeding.
The first approach is to fell a tree where I can back my Jeep in close enough to strap on to the trunk. Once the tree is down, I will cut the branches off and leave them be for the time being. Then I run a chainsaw across the trunk, which will send all the thorns flying. Once it is de-thorned, I’ll pull the main trunk to another spot to cut it up. This leaves the thorns well away from my new work area. Just remember to be careful if you walk through that section of woods in the future!
The second approach is what I have to use when felling these trees close to the house where I expect foot or vehicle traffic. I try to drop the tree to an open area if I can. This time, I de-thorn the trunk using an axe, so the thorns fall straight to the ground around the trunk. This will keep the work area from becoming a minefield of pure pain. Once the trunk has had all the thorns removed, I take a leaf rake and rake them all to one spot. The rake does a great job of gathering all of the thorns up from the ground. Now I have a safer area to work on cutting the trunk into firewood sized pieces. At this point, you can go back to the thorn pile and shovel them into a box or bucket.
If you get creative, you might come up with some uses for the thorns. I’ve thought about using them in specific areas to deter the local wildlife. Since they are extremely hard, they would probably make for some excellent primitive fish hooks. If your creative side is lacking, they burn completely and very well.
Maybe I was paying better attention this year, but it seems like when Spring hit, it hit all at once. My memory isn’t the best, but in previous years it seemed a little more gradual. Within the first two weeks of April, we went from a drab winter scene of brown and more brown to trees in full leaf and the grass and weeds in the pasture being knee tall. We did have a sneak attack freeze on Tax Day this year, the latest freeze I can recall. Luckily, I was able to cover all the tender squash and bush beans with a thick layer of straw, so they fared pretty well. The onions, radishes, and sweet peas could care less about a 29 degree night.
Now that we’ve had our last freeze, it’s time for everything else to start going in the ground. I procrastinated this winter on starting my seedlings for tomato and peppers, so a trip to the Dennis Farm Store was in order. Dennis’ is a locally owned store that covers just about any need for farm or ranch. To make it even better, the owner is a wealth of information. The best part is seedlings from his store are twice as healthy and half the price of the box store places. I ended up picking out 14 tomato and 16 pepper seedlings. He threw in the big packet of okra seeds I needed for me.
This morning found me out getting the tomatoes in and mulched. As soon as the last of the straw mulch was spread, big raindrops started to fall. I wish I could say I planned it that way, but it was dumb luck more than my ability to forecast weather. Now the sun is peeking through the clouds and we’re looking at a warm, sunny afternoon. I think the baby tomato plants will enjoy their first day in their new home.
Aside from gardening, other upcoming projects on the homestead include building a quail tractor and getting 20 or 30 quail. Sarah and I have no experience with these little birds, so we’ll document the process the whole way and hopefully not kill too many birds while we learn. I have a friend that is getting started with quail several weeks ahead of me, so I’m hoping to learn from any mistakes he might make.
Once the garden starts producing, Sarah and I will fire up the pressure canner to preserve some of the harvest. We’ll do a full write up on the process for anyone interested in learning the skill. We have other projects in the works, but like always we have more plans than we have time. We’ll cover anything we get into and share them as we learn new skills in self sufficiency and self reliance.
As we’ve gotten settled in at the new homestead, one of my first goals was to get a garden established. Texans are blessed with a long growing season, and the Fall garden usually does as well as a Spring garden. Days are warm, sun is abundant, and the first frost is really late in the year. Even more exciting was the dirt I have here at the homestead. I have over an acre of dark brown sandy loam. Beautiful dirt in the eyes of anyone wanting to grow things. I couldn’t wait to start getting my vegetables in the ground. After checking for proper planting dates, I put seeds in the ground before we had a functioning kitchen or the dining room table set up. I’m not sure Sarah agreed with my priorities, but she’s very tolerant of my craziness.
I opted to start small and work with an area on the south side of the house. There was dirt that had recently been worked into a water control feature to keep run-off from running up to the house. It was already loose, so I didn’t have to really break any ground. I dug through my seed packets to see what was date appropriate. Early August is perfect for a variety of squash. Yellow Crookneck, Butternut, and Black Beauty Zucchini all got the stamp of approval and went in the ground. The girls really wanted some pumpkins for the Fall, so I obliged and planted five little mounds of two varieties of them. Tomato and Pepper transplants were also due, so a trip to the local nursery netted a few of each. Some heirloom and a couple of hybrid tomatoes, a couple of Bells and a couple of Serrano plants went in the ground next. I raked up a lot of dried grass clippings from the field to act as a temporary mulch and set out on a routine of watering to offset the hot, dry weather.
At first, everything was going perfectly. The transplants took off without many signs of transplant shock. Within a few days, I had little baby squash and pumpkins emerging for their first taste of air and sunlight. In another few days, they all started putting on their big kid leaves. I was one excited gardener! I was already planning on how much we would eat fresh, how much we could can, and how much would be a goodwill gesture to the new neighbors. Never count your chickens before they hatch!!
In my excitement, I overlooked a major part of the Texas ecology. Late summer is hot and dry. Anything that isn’t irrigated starts to die, including all the grass. That wipes out the primary food source of a plague. So much a plague, that it is literally of biblical proportions. Grasshoppers by the thousands start looking for new sources of food. My garden turned into a buffet. I’ve learned that grasshoppers had preferences. They prefer summer squash over everything else. Once that was gone, they decided on winter squash. Then they set their sights on pumpkins. Sorry girls, no pumpkins to carve for Halloween!
(One of the culprits actively engaged on the carcass of a squash plant)
I thought the grasshoppers were content there. Turns out I’m not that lucky. Did you know that grasshoppers will eat pepper plants?? I do now! The only thing they don’t seem to ravenously destroy are tomato plants. For now at least.
Even after having my heart ripped out and consumed by evil, ugly, jumping insects, I’m not one to accept defeat. So if the grasshoppers don’t care for tomatoes, I certainly do! All that real estate left vacant by my my poor, defenseless squash plants will soon be occupied again. We just picked up several varieties of tomato plants. As the sun starts to set tonight the planting will begin. I’ll be going from 6 tomato plants to 16. By God, if tomatoes are the only thing I can grow, then I’ll grow a lot of them!!
Once it cools down a little, I’m hoping the grasshopper invasion will lighten up a little bit. I should still have time to get cool weather plants established before it gets too cold.
So far, the Fall garden has been a harsh lesson but I’m determined to get something to produce. At least I can walk away with more knowledge. Learning from mistakes might hurt a little, but it makes that hurt sting a little less when we can garner information to make the next attempt a little easier. Now that I know the evil that lurks in the Texas summer, I’m planning defensive measures. If I have to build a grasshopper screen for next year, I have a year to plan it. Grasshoppers are jumpy little things (pun intended!), so I’m going to mess with their heads. I’m going to try putting several mylar pinwheels out to spin in the breeze and throw crazy reflections all over the place. Bird feeders will be going up all over the place to draw in some natural predators. The grasshoppers have won this battle, but the war has only begun!
Stay tuned for other (Mis)Adventures on the new homestead. Sarah and I are talking about soapmaking, so if we pull it off without chemical burns we’ll work out a how-to tutorial. If we end up with caustic burns, we’ll post up some home remedies for chemical burns!
*No grasshoppers were harmed in the making of the article. Yet.
For a long while, Surviving Modern Life had to be put on the back burner so I could actually survive modern life. Over the past few months, life has been busy with finding a house to rent, raising kids, commutes measured in hours, and working as much as possible to fund all of it. Finally, Sarah and I have found a rental property. We are mostly unpacked and getting the kids settled in, though some of life is still being lived out of moving boxes. Originally, we expected to find something in town and were willing to adapt our homestead desires to an urban model. We spent every available moment looking at rent houses and thinking of ways to adapt to them, only to find them rented out to someone else before we could even meet with the landlord to sign a lease. If the housing and rental market is down, no one told north Texas!!
By a stroke of luck, Sarah found a classified ad for a home for rent outside of town. 13 miles out of town to be exact. Everything worked out better than expected, a lease was signed the day we viewed it, and we started moving all the stuff that two households contained to form one. My commute is now measured in minutes rather than hours, so now it is time to move the website back to the front burner and turn up the heat!
I originally stated that the mission of this website was to share information as I learn to become more self sufficient. Now I can kick that concept into overdrive as the new homestead is larger than I hoped. We have a four acre parcel to work with, though I doubt I ever utilize all of it. There is plenty of room for all sorts of homestead and self sufficiency projects, which will provide plenty of content for the website. When I started the website, resources and space were limited, and I found it difficult to stay motivated on writing articles. I felt like I was cheating my readers, because the content was based more on research than hands-on experience. I started writing gear reviews and articles on subjects that were pertinent to survival, but it wasn’t my intent to become the gear expert. I wanted dirt on my hands, and food on the table. I wanted to be a source of information for homestead survival, not a gun and gear reviewer.
As Surviving Modern Life started, I was surprised at the number of readers I was getting. I was humbled that so many people would subscribe and read the ramblings of a country boy that was interested in being ready for some zombie apocalypse. I even made friends with some of the big names in the field, like Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy, Jack Spirko, and the folks at the Self Reliance Expo. Then, as life got busy, I let everything go to the wayside for a while. Readership has dropped off, Google ranking is a lot lower now, and overall, the website has been stagnant.
I hope to get this corrected and turn Surviving Modern Life into the information source and community that I wanted it to be. I’ve had friends ask about contributing, I’ve had companies ask about advertising. I didn’t feel comfortable letting someone invest time or money if I wasn’t willing to keep it active. Now that modern life has equalized, it is time to resurrect a faded website and get our hands in the dirt and our pantries in shape! If you have anything to share, want to write an article, or just say hi, feel free to comment here or email me.
Thanks for taking time to read, and I look forward to talking with you!
For years I’ve considered buying a rifle or carbine for defensive use. It never rated high on the priority list since I always considered myself a shotgun guy when it came to personal or home defense. I’ve spent a few years looking at various rifles and carbines from a noncommittal standpoint and became pretty well versed with what was on the market. I knew all the specs and read all the reviews online and in magazines. I’ve even handled and shot a few varieties. It was safe to say that I was unbiased toward any particular design. The AK has its strengths and weakness, as did the AR platform. I knew I wasn’t interested in guns chambered in larger calibers like .308 or 7.62x54R. These serve a purpose, but not the one I wanted to fill. I knew my desires landed in the intermediate cartridges like .556 or 7.62×39. Ammo availability and price are always a concern when I’m looking at a gun.
I let a friend know that I was getting serious about figuring out what kind of rifle I wanted, he invited me to stop by the defensive training range he works at. He arranged for there to be several rifles there so I could look, feel, and shoot each one to get more familiar with the features I wanted. This was a blessing since purchasing a defensive rifle can be a pretty big investment. After some basic instruction on the designs, we hit the range. I quickly decided that I favored the AR platform. Luckily there were five variations available to test out. They ranged from polymer lower guns to a custom competition gun put together by a very competent armorer.
Now that I knew what I wanted, it was time to start the shopping process. I was back to the internet and magazines to read reviews with a very critical eye. My budget put me somewhere in the middle of the AR world. I wasn’t going to be buying a LaRue or Daniel Defense, but I wasn’t stuck looking in the bargain bins either. With the research done, it was time to get some hands on at every gun store I could get to. Luckily we have several great tactical weapons suppliers in the greater D/FW area. Bushmaster, SIG, DPMS… I handled them all. After a couple of weeks I ended up at the local Cabela’s retail store. Their selection is pretty good and prices are competitive. What was even better was ending up with an employee that was not only knowledgeable, he was willing to spend as much time as needed with me. I had already handled most of their offerings at other stores, so he handed me a rifle I hadn’t touched before. Like most people, I’d never heard of Windham Weaponry. I was leery of a rifle that I hadn’t seen in the gun magazines.
The Initial Impression
As soon as he handed me the gun, I went to town with my initial review. Pop the pins, open it up and see what it looks like on the inside. Most ARs sport the same features externally, so I wanted to see how well the manufacturer treated areas that usually aren’t seen. Attention to detail is important. If a company cuts corners where no one can see, where else will they try to save a few bucks?
Internally, the Windham looked good. No rough machine marks could be found in the upper or lower receivers. The bolt looked very good and I was pleased to see that not only was the gas key staked, it was staked well. Research had told me that Windham performs pressure tests and MPI tests. Even though there is no way to visually verify that, it means that they are serious about the quality of their components.
Externally, the Windham looks like most other ARs. All of the pieces fit together tightly and the finish on both aluminum and steel are even. It has all the features expected such as a dust cover, forward assist, and collapsible stock. It is a very straightforward offering. As the cliche in the AR world says, “All the features you need, and none you don’t”. This was perfect for me since I already had ideas about customizing it to suit me.
So after being impressed with the quality and the very few reviews available, I decided to take the Windham home with me. What made the deal sweeter was a sale price on the gun. Those that have been reading my site for a while know how much I love good deals on guns!
To be completely honest, the range review will be a little skewed. From my previous range date, I knew that I wanted to add some goodies to the gun right off the bat. Let’s face it, ARs are Barbie dolls for grown men and offer countless accessories. Before heading to the range, I added a couple of goodies from Magpul. I opted to install the MOE handgaurd and the ACS buttstock. The buttstock changes the way the rifle shoulders and improves cheekweld. I also picked up a handful of 30 round PMags.
For the initial testing, I brought a few different rounds: .223 55gr FMJ from Remington, 5.56 62gr FMJ from Lake City, and .223 55gr FMJ steel case ammo from Tula. The reason the steel case ammo was tested was because of the cheaper price. Some gun enthusiasts might never consider steel case in an AR, but I believe if it works, take advantage of the cheaper practice!
The Windham digested 2 boxes of each of the brass ammo and I was on my third box of Wolf when I experienced a failure to eject (FTE). After looking everything over, I found a bit of crud under the extractor. A quick flick of the wrist with a dental pick and we were back in business. Since that initial FTE, I have experienced no other issues. So far I have put about 2000 rounds through it. If I shoot a few hundred rounds of steel case ammo, I’ll check under the extractor any make sure there is no buildup that might lead to another FTE.
Even shooting as much as I have, I haven’t taken the time to do a true accuracy test. The range I shoot at is geared to defensive training, so the longest range they offer is around 35 yards. The most thorough testing I’ve done is shooting some military BZO targets. These targets offer a small target designed to be shot from 30 yards. At this distance, the size of the target is the same as a man sized target at 300 yards. Even with my poor eyesight and using irons, I am able to keep them on target. The trigger lends to accuracy right out of the box. There is very little takeup, and the release is about as crisp as I’ve found. I would compare it to a lot of better bolt guns.
So far, I’ve used this gun for one carbine class. Even with some rapid fire exercises to heat everything up, the gun ran as well as any other participants’ gun in the class and better that most.
The most telling review I’ve received is from other shooters at the range. Several law enforcement officers and prior service military personnel have shot my Windham and have been impressed. The consensus is that it is a well crafted gun and Windham will be able to raise their prices once they develop their customer base. The gun compares in quality to guns that cost hundreds more.
In closing I’d like to say that I feel comfortable recommending this gun to anyone looking for a solid AR. I’d also like to thank the guys over at Proactive Defense for putting up with me while I was researching, asking questions, and learning more about the AR platform. If you need any defensive training in the north Texas area, you can’t find a more knowledgeable, experienced, or friendlier group of guys.
One of the biggest benefits of living in a modern society is unlimited access to clean water. We rarely even think about water quality when we can turn on a faucet and have millions of gallons of clean, safe water. This seemingly endless supply of water relies on huge investments in infrastructure. Most don’t realize that the water from the tap travels many miles through pipelines and treatment plants and distribution systems to get to the kitchen sink. These systems are robust and very well designed, leading to very reliable service. With such reliability, it’s easy to see why water is overlooked in preparing for emergency situations.
There are many reasons why interruption in water service can occur. A few that come to mind are long term power loss, infrastructure damage, and terrorist activity. What are we to do when that reliable source of water stops flowing? A simple answer for the short term is to have water stored. Storing water is as simple as it sounds… Put water in a suitable container and seal it. There are products out there for treating stored water, but they are largely unneeded. If the water is clean when stored, it will remain so as long as the container isn’t damaged or compromised. If you feel the need to treat the water, standard household bleach will work as well as any chemical preservative.
Let’s assume we have a loss of water service that is going to last more than a day or two. In this scenario, we need the ability to source water and make sure it is fit for our needs. Surface water is available in most areas of the country, but will not be safe to drink as it stands. We’ll look at a few ways to make this water safe to drink.
Selecting the Source
One of the best ways to get safe water is to start with the best you can. Running water is always preferred to standing or stagnant water. Just like we need water for life, so does every other organism on earth. Standing or stagnant water is a hotbed of life, including microbes that can rob us of our life. However, please do not assume that running water is safe as is. It can contain plenty of unsafe microbes as well. All water sourced will need treatment of some sort.
One handy way I’ve found to locate surface water is the use of Google Maps. You can zoom in on your area and use satellite images to locate ponds, lakes, and creeks nearby. More often than not, you will find water sources you didn’t know about.
If the water you have is not clear, you will want to filter it before treatment. This will remove large particles and dirt from the water. This can range from pouring water through a cloth such as a bandana up to building a sand filter. There is a lot of information available online for basic water filtering to remove large particles and contaminants. We’ll cover water filtration for microbe removal a bit later.
Now that we’ve found a source of water, we need to decide how to make it safe. There are a lot of options available to ensure clean water for drinking.
This is the most basic way to make water safe to drink. Microbes that can make us sick don’t do well with heat, so we can heat water until they are dead. At what point are we sure they are dead? The general consensus is 30 minutes at 160F, less than 5 minutes at 185F, and by the time water comes to a rolling boil, all microbes are dead. I’ve seen some sources that recommend 10 minutes at boiling, but anything over 1 minute seems to be overkill. I wouldn’t fault anyone for letting it boil for a few minutes to be sure if fuel sources are abundant.
2. Chemical Treatment.
There are several options available to use chemicals to treat water to kill microbes. One of the cheapest and most effective is chlorine. 5 to 7 drops of chlorine bleach per quart of water will kill anything in the water. Just shake up the container and let it stand for 10 minutes to let the chlorine kill everything. There are other chemical treatments available at outdoor supply store such as iodine based treatments. If you go this route, just follow the directions on the container for optimum results.
There are a lot of filter options available these days. Most of them work very well, but you have to pay attention to the size of the pores on the filter element. Most water filters will filter out all bacteria and particles from the water, but will allow a virus to pass through. There are filters available that offer pore sizes down to .01 microns. These will take out viral contamination, but they are generally expensive. If your filter cannot ensure virus-free water, you might consider additional treatments listed here.
4. Ultraviolet (UV)
Microbes (including virus) can’t live long when exposed to UV light. One of the easiest methods to kill microbes is to expose them to UV light. If the water is clear and placed in direct sunlight in a translucent container, wait for 6 hours and the water should be safe to drink. If you can place the container on a reflective surface, it will increase treatment effectiveness. The catch to using this method is that the water must be clear. If it is cloudy, UV light cannot penetrate and kill microbes.
I still think it is important to keep some clean water stored up. It will offer a good buffer during a disaster or survival situation while you make plans to procure and purify additional water. Of course, the best option is to have a plan in place in case you need it. So go ahead a take a few minutes to evaluate where the nearest source of water is and what would be the most effective means to make it safe to drink.